Vacation Photos 2001: Scotland & France

We try to plan our vacations during mushroom season. Why travel to distant places when there are no mushrooms!?! In the fall of 2001 my wife, Jane Wardzinska, and I visited Jane's father in the West Lothian area of Scotland and our good friend and avid mushroomer, Jack Aldridge, in the Puy de-Dôme district of France.

No microscope was available, so all of these fungi were identified by macroscopic features using these three field guides:

All photographs © Michael Wood. Click on the species name to see the photo. Most photos also have a higher resolution version available by clicking on the "Hi Res Photo" icon.


  1. Aleuria Hi Res Photo
    This beautiful ascomycete keys to Aleuria aurantia in the European field guides. It is significantly more orange than the typical Aleuria aurantia in the Western United States. The common name for this fungus is "orange peel" or "orange cup".
    CAF description

  2. Calocera viscosaHi Res Photo
    Calocera viscosaHi Res Photo
    This is a jelly fungus, related to Dacrymyces. It can be differentiated from its coral fungi look-alikes by a greasy and viscid feel.

  3. Chalciporus piperatus Click for Big!
    This pored mushroom has often been placed in the genus Boletus. Modern molecular work supports the morphological evidence that it does belong in a segregate genus. Chalciporus piperatus is often called the "Peppery Bolete" because of its peppery taste.
    CAF description

  4. Coprinellus micaceus Click for Big!
    Known as the "Mica Cap".
    CAF description

  5. Cystoderma sp. Click for Big!
    Growing on rotting wood. The ID is very tentative.

  6. Hygrocybe
    Hygrocybes typically grow in forests in California, especially redwood forests. In Europe, Hygrocybe is mainly a grasslands species. Many of the same species are found both in California and Europe, but the difference in habitat is an interesting puzzle. The Hygrocybe in the photograph was in the lawn of the birthplace of Robert Burns, in Ayr, Scotland.

  7. Hypholoma marginatum Click for Big!
    Hypholoma marginatum Click for Big!
    I was unable to get a name on this mushroom while in Scotland. Candidates were Psathyrella, Stropharia, and Hypholoma. I have had several persons suggest Hypholoma marginatum and that seems to be a good macroscopic match.

  8. Inocybe geophylla var. lilicina Click for Big!
    Inocybe geophylla var. lilicina Click for Big!
    Note both the lilac and white versions are growing together in the first photograph!
    CAF description

  9. Lactarius deterrimus Click for Big!
    Lactarius deterrimus Click for Big!
    Our common Lactarius with orange latex is Lactarius deliciosus. It grows in California in association with pine trees. Lactarius deterrimus grows in association with spruce. Both species are edible, but L. deliciosus is generally considered superior in flavor.

  10. Phallus impudicusHi Res Photo
    Phallus impudicusHi Res Photo
    Phallus impudicusHi Res Photo
    Phallus impudicusHi Res Photo
    Phallus impudicusHi Res Photo
    Phallus impudicusHi Res Photo
    This stinkhorn was removed from its natural forest habitat in its immature "egg" stage and planted in my father-in-law's back yard. It "fruited" a couple of days later. The spores are in the stinking gelatinous substance on the head of the mature fungus. The aroma of rotting carrion attracts flies, who then spread the spores. There is nothing left for the fly in the last three photos!

  11. Piptoporus betulinusHi Res Photo
    Piptoporus betulinusHi Res Photo
    Piptoporus betulinusHi Res Photo
    Piptoporus betulinusHi Res Photo
    This polypore is very common where ever Birch is found. Birch is not native to California, but it is conceivable that the "Birch Polypore" will be found growing on some of the many birches that are planted in urban areas of California.

  12. Ramaria abietina Click for Big!
    This looks just like the Ramaria abietina that is common locally here in coastal California, especially under Cypress.
    CAF description

  13. Scutellinia scutellataHi Res Photo
    Scutellinia scutellataHi Res Photo
    This is known as the "eyelash" cup fungus.
    CAF description

  14. Sparassis crispaHi Res Photo
    This is a delicious edible mushroom. Unfortunately, this was found the day before we were returning home, so it remained uneaten, at least by us!
    CAF description

  15. Xylaria hypoxylonHi Res Photo
    The "Candlesnuff Fungus" is very common on dead hardwoods in both North America and Europe.
    CAF description


  1. Amanita muscaria Click for Big!
    Probably the most common large mushroom in the area of France where we were staying.
    CAF description

  2. Amanita rubescensHi Res Photo
    Amanita rubescensHi Res Photo
    Amanita rubescensHi Res Photo
    This edible Amanita is known as the "Blusher" because the white flesh becomes red where handled. Our California species, Amanita novinupta, was long mis-known as Amanita rubescens, but the differences are distinct.

  3. Ascocoryne sarcoides Click for Big!
    This ascomycete is also uncommonly found in California. It primarily grows on hardwoods.

  4. Boletus edulisHi Res Photo
    I could not see any significant differences between the Boletus edulis that we find under pines along the coast of California with the Boletus edulis we found under Beech in France and Scotland.
    CAF description

  5. Boletus erythropus Click for Big!
    Boletus erythropus Click for Big!
    Boletus erythropus Click for Big!
    Boletus erythropus Click for Big!
    You have to love a mushroom that breaks the "rules"! This red pored, blue staining, Boletus is a delicious edible. A similar mushroom, that goes by the same name, is uncommonly found in California. I think they are probably different species.

  6. Fomitopsis pinicolaHi Res Photo
    Fomitopsis pinicolaHi Res Photo
    Although Fomitopsis pinicola typically grows on conifers, especially pine, it occasionally will be found on hardwoods. The specimens photographed were growing on Beech (Fagus).
    CAF description

  7. Hypholoma sublateritiumHi Res Photo
    Commonly called "Brick Caps", this mushroom is generally considered edible. We did not try it.

  8. "Mushrooms" Click for Big!
    We found these large "mushrooms" growing in the Rhone Valley, just south of the Cote-Rotie vinyards.