The North American Species of Pholiota

Subgenus Phaeonaematoloma (Singer) Singer

The spores may or may not be truncate, but chrysocystidia are present. This latter feature was not emphasized in Singer's 1951 account, but his type species possesses them.

Key to Sections

1. Annulus conspicuous and distinct
1. Veil leaving a more or less evanescent zone

Section Albivelatae sect. nov.

Annulus conspicuus, membranaceus vel floccosus; chrysocystidia adsunt. Typus P. albivelata.

Key to Species

1. Spores 9-12 4.5-6 µ
1. Spores smaller
2. Pileus pellicle well-developed; spores 7-9 x 4-5.5 µ
2. Pileus lacking a gelatinous pellicle
3. Spores 4.5-6 x 3-4 µ
3. Spores 6-8 x 4-5 µ
4. Pleurocystidia 35-53 x 8-14 µ; spores with a germ pore
4. Pleurocystidia 25-36 x 5-12 µ; spores without a pore

Section Phaeonaematoloma (Singer) Singer

Lilloa 22: 517. 1951.

Flammula (Phaeonematoloma) Rev. Mycol. Paris. 2: 241. 1937.

Chrysocystidia or cells somewhat resembling them as to shape and content present in the hymenium; never with both the pileus and stipe distinctly scaly; spores not obviously truncate if the spore is less than 9 long; annulus not conspicuous.

Type species: Pholiota myosotis.

Key to Stirpes

1. Stipe viscid when young and fresh
Stirps Silvatica
1. Stipe not viscid when young
2. Pileus not viscid when young and fresh
Stirps Elongata
2. Pileus viscid when young and fresh
3. Spores typically 10 µ or more long and apex typically truncate
Stirps Myosotis
3. Spores typically under 10 µ long and pileus viscid (or in a few species merely subviscid) (See P. caespitosa and P. tennessensis also)
Stirps Subochracea

Stirps Silvatica

1. Stipe with a fibrillose inner veil and a gelatinous outer veil; base furnished with a pseudorhiza
1. Stipe not radicating and a double veil not evident

Stirps Myosotis

Stipe long and slender, growing in bogs or on peaty soil; pileus with a gelatinous pellicle.

Key to Species of Stirpes Elongata and Myosotis

1. Pileus with a gelatinous pellicle
1. Pileus lacking a gelatinous pellicle
2. Pileus olivaceous; pellicle thick and tough
2. Pileus orange-tawny to dull cinnamon; pellicle thin and easily obliterated
3. Stipe with a pseudorhiza; spores 6-8 x 4-5 µ
3. Stipe lacking a pseudorhiza; spores 8-11 x 5-6 µ

Stirps Subochracea

1. Pileus and stipe blue becoming olivaceous and fading to dingy buff
1. Not as above
2. Pileus olivaceous on margin, gills yellow before spores mature; stipe coarsely fibrillose-squamulose near base
2. Not as above
3. Spores 5-6 x 2.5-3 µ
3. Spores 6-8 (9) x 3 -5 µ
4. Stipe with a distinct pseudorhiza; taste bitter
4. Not as above
5. Stipe slender (up to 3.5 mm thick)
5. Stipe thicker (3-15 mm thick)
6. Pileus dull reddish brown on disc, grayish brown over marginal area
6. Pileus ferruginous to ochraceous
7. Lamellae broad; subhymenium not gelatinous
7. Lamellae narrow; subhymenium gelatinous
8. Pileus with a prominent umbo; stipe lacking tawny mycelium around the base of the stipe
8. Pileus merely broadly convex; tawny mycelium present at stipe base
9. Pileus disc distinctly rosy brownish
9. Pileus not colored as above
10. Lamellae narrow; stipe squamulose
see P. angustifolia
10. Lamellae broad; stipe merely fibrillose
11. Odor of honey; pileus honey-yellow
11. Not as above
12. Pileus white to pallid when young, typically yellowing as it matures or in one variant becoming avellaneous
12. Pileus more highly colored when young
13. Vesiculose-pedicellate pleurocystidia with bright ochraceous content present
13. Chrysocystidia in hymenium fusoid-ventricose to clavate; no vesiculose-pedicellate cells present
14. Lamellae narrow; pleurocystidia as typical chrysocystidia
14. Lamellae broad
15. Pleurocystidia present as typical leptocystidia as to shape, but usually with an amorphous to granular content
15. Pleurocystidia inconspicuous but typical of chrysocystidia; cheilocystidia resembling those of P. erinaceella

Key to Varieties of Pholiota lutescens

1. Grayish squamules over pileus rather conspicuous
1. Pileus glabrous or practically so


CA Mushrooms