The North American Species of Pholiota

53. Pholiota subpapillata sp. nov.

Illustrations: Text figs. 489, 490, 492.

Pileus 1.5-3.5 cm latus, conico-campanulatus demum plano-umbonatus vel papillatus, viscidus, glaber, sordide cinnamomeus, deinde pallide ochraceus (hygrophanus). Contextus brunneolus demum pallidus; sapor mitis, cum "FeSO4" concolor. Lamellae confertae, angustae, adnatae, brunneolae demum griseo-cacao color. Stipe 3-4 cm longus, 2-2.5 mm crassus, aequalis, cavus, cartilagineus, deorsum atrobrunneus, sursum griseo-brunneus, sericeus. Sporae 6-7 x 3-3.8 µ, truncatae. Pleurocystidia 28-42 x 8-13 µ, fusoide-ventricosa, obtusa. Specimen typicum in Herb. Univ. Mich. conservatum est; legit prope Cour d'Alene, Idaho. 2 Oct. 1966. Smith 73854.

Pileus 1.5-3.5 cm broad, conic-umbonate to obtusely umbonate at first, expanding to plano-umbonate or papillate, surface glabrous, viscid, hygrophanous, dingy cinnamon ("Sayal brown" more or less) and fading to pinkish buff, when old and wet grayish brown with a faintly striatulate margin. Context thin, watery brown fading to pallid, odor and taste none, FeSO4 no reaction.

Lamellae crowded, narrow, adnate-seceding, dull brownish young, chocolate gray mature, horizontal, edges even.

Stipe 3-4 cm long, 2-2.5 mm thick, equal, hollow, cartilaginous-fragile, blackish brown below, paler purplish brown to grayish brown at the apex, naked or very thinly coated with silky grayish fibrils. Veil very rudimentary.

Spore deposit earth brown, when moisture has escaped dull "Sayal brown." Spores 6-7 x 3-3.8 µ, smooth, truncate from an apical pore, shape in face view subelliptic to ovate, in profile obscurely inequilateral, color in KOH dull cinnamon, in Melzer's about the same color; wall about 0.25 µ thick.

Basidia 4-spored, 18-24 x 6-7 µ, slightly clavate, hyaline or nearly so in KOH. Pleurocystidia 28-42 x 8-13 µ, fusoid ventricose to nearly utriform, hyaline in KOH, "empty," scattered to fairly abundant, smooth, thin-walled. Cheilocystidia similar to pleurocystidia but many with bumps near apex or short protuberances. Caulocystidia clavate, vesiculose or variously fusoid-ventricose and with obtuse projections or branches, mostly similar to cheilocystidia.

Gill trama of subparallel hyphae having short cells which become inflated to ± 15 µ and have pallid to brownish smooth walls in KOH, subhymenium a very narrow indistinct layer not gelatinous. Pileus cutis a thin gelatinous pellicle of narrow (2.5-4 µ) hyaline, smooth hyphae; hypodermium not differentiated. Context hyphae hyaline and thin-walled next to the cutis, near subhymenium with thicker (± 1 µ) walls but hyaline, the region appearing parenchymatous in sections. Clamp connections present.

Habit, Habitat, and Distribution: Gregarious-caespitose on chip dirt, Couer-d'Alene. Idaho, Oct. 2, 1966. Smith 73854, type.

Observations: This species is very close to P. vernalis but is distinguished by the rudimentary veil all traces of which soon vanish, the chocolate colored gills which remind one of Psilocybe, and the presence of pleurocystidia. It is a more psilocyboid species than P. vernalis and again emphasizes that the two genera intergrade.