Mycologia 105(5): 1281. 2013.
Common Name: none
Scattered to gregarious to cespitose under conifers (pine and Douglas fir). Common fall through early winter.
Edible when cooked.
Helvella vespertina and Helvella dryophila have historically hidden under the name Helvella lacunosa, a European species not known to occur in North America. Recent DNA sampling has shown at least 11 species in the Helvella lacunosa 'group' in North America. The two common California species can best be distinguished by their habitat, Helvella vespertina is associated with conifers and Helvella dryophila is associated with oaks.
For more information see Nguyen et al.
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